Joints and articular
functioning of the skeletal joints (hip, shoulder, elbow, hock and stifle)
dramatically affects a pet's mobility which, in turn, affects not only
the level of activity of the pet, but such routine functions as rising
from a sitting position or climbing and descending stairs. While this applies
to pets of all ages, it becomes extremely important in older and larger
plays an important role in optimal joint function by providing a smooth,
low friction surface between articulating bone ends while transmitting
load forces to the underlying bone.
of the remarkable functions of articular cartilage is its ability to replenish
its major components in response to the mechanical forces placed on it.
of cells called chondrocytes which synthesize and deposit around themselves
a matrix of giant molecules. This extracellular matrix of immense molecules
made by chondrocytes gives cartilage its properties of resilience and tensile
strength. The matrix consists of collagen and proteoglycans. Collagen,
a tough ropy protein that physically connects the tissues, provides the
tensile strength of cartilage. Proteoglycans, consist mainly of hyaluronic
acid and glycosaminoglycans (GAGs). The water-structuring properties of
the proteoglycans provide the compressive resilience of cartilage.
its major components by manufacturing and remodeling prodigious amounts
of collagen and proteoglycans. This constant and ongoing synthesizing process
often generates extremely large demands for building blocks of collagen
and proteoglycans with production requirements doubling or tripling over
If the raw materials
(nutrients) for these building blocks are not available in the amounts
required, the synthesizing process is impaired and the cartilage loses
its ability to replenish itself.
the raw materials that are essential for the synthesis of synovial fluid
and the complete cartilage matrix including collagen, hyaluronic acid and
the various modified sugar chains of the glycosaminoglycans. Cosequin is
a true nutraceutical with outstanding safety.
What can I expect using
Cosequin provides nutrients, changes may occur more slowly than would be
expected with drug compounds. We recommend an initial administration period
of six weeks. You should notice changes in three to four weeks in the majority
of candidates, but a few candidates may take five to six weeks before noticeable
differences are observed. In most cases, you will notice a quicker change
in younger animals than older animals. After the initial administration
period, dosing can be lowered to a maintenance level which can vary between
Are there any side effects
offers unparalleled safety. Acute oral toxicity tests have been conducted
indicating no oral toxicity, and no changes were observed during gross
necropsy. The tests indicated an LD-50 greater than 5gm/kg which is the
standard for nontoxic substances. In addition, fungal and microbial tests
are run on each batch of Cosequin to make sure the product is free of pathogens.
Recommendation as a
Initial Administration Period is 6 Weeks. Most animals should respond within
this period. Improvement on Cosequin can range from gradual to dramatic.
If the improvement is gradual, it may go unnoticed by the owner. It is
therefore important to keep the animal on the loading dose for at least
6 weeks before deciding to discontinue the use of Cosequin. If there is
gradual improvement and Cosequin is discontinued, a regression of the animal's
status can occur.
Cosequin (Regular Strength)
- 6 weeks
Cats & Dogs: Under 10 lbs. 1/2 - 1 capsule daily
10 - 25 lbs. 2 capsules daily(l in AM; 1 in PM)
Cats and dogs under 10 lbs can often have their dosage reduced by 1/2 capsule
daily or 1 capsule every other day. Dogs 10 to 25 lbs. can often have their
dosage reduced to 1 capsule daily.
Cosequin DS (Double
- 6 weeks
Dogs: 25 - 49 lbs. 2 capsules daily (1 in AM; 1 in
50 - 100 lbs. 3 capsules daily (2 AM; 1 in PM)
over 100 lbs. 4 capsules daily (2 in AM; 2 in PM)
Dogs 25 to 49 lbs can often have their total daily dosage lowered in increments
of 1/2 capsule per month until maintenance level is reached.
Dogs over 49 lbs
can often have their total daily dosage lowered in increments of 1 capsule
per month until maintenance level is reached.
Dosage can be
increased at any time depending on the pet's needs. If the pet does not
respond as well when the dosage is decreased, then return to previous dosage
level. Remain on this dosage for an additional month, then try again to
gradually reduce dosage. Sometimes an every other day dosage or lowering
the dosage by 1/2 capsule rather than one capsule can be successful. Some
pets will maintain at a lower dose during the summer months than the winter
months. Also activity level can vary the dosage requirements. In times
of high physical demand, pets may require more Cosequin.
Cosequin DS double
strength can be used on patients under 25 lbs., however, 1/2 capsule increments
must be used. For dosing convenience, Cosequin regular strength should
be used. Regular strength can also be used for maintenance of dogs weighing
5 to 49 lbs. that maintain below one capsule daily of double strength.
The capsules can
be easily pulled apart and the contents sprinkled on the pet's food. Wet
or moist food works best as there can be a loss when sprinkled on dry food.
As an alternative, the pets can be pilled or the capsules administered
by wrapping in a small piece of food such as bread or cheese. Cosequin
is palatable to dogs, cats and pet birds.
Can I use Cosequin with
is a dietary supplement and can be used alone or with other products. Some
practitioners find it convenient to use Cosequin with other standard products.
Can Cosequin be used
in species other than dogs and cats?
There is a powder concentrate, with a different formulation, for use in
horses. Nutramax recommends the use of capsules for small animals, and
the powder concentrate for horses. Also many zoos are using Cosequin on
a variety of birds and exotic species.
Are there any clinical
studies being done with Cosequin?
Nutramax Laboratories is funding clinical studies at leading veterinary
colleges with orthopedic specialists.
What is the difference
between Cosequin and other Oral Chondroitin Sulfate and Glucosamine Sulfate
is a patented combination of dietary ingredients of unparalleled purity
and each has its own primary function in connective tissue synthesis.
In addition to being the main substrate for the biosynthesis of glycosaminoglycans
and hyaluronic acid, the primary function of glucosamine is to stimulate
the secretion of glycosaminoglycans in the articular cartilage.
In addition to being the major glycosaminoglycans found in cartilage, its
primary function is to inhibit degradative enzymes. Degradative enzymes
contribute to cartilage breakdown.
A necessary cofactor in the body for the biosynthesis of glycosaminoglycans.
It is a necessary cofactor in the body for collagen biosynthesis.
effect of glucosamine and chondroitin sulfate performing their primary
functions concurrently, using manganese and ascorbate as cofactors, is
what makes Cosequin unique and the only product of its kind. This overall
matrix enhancement will over time allow for lower maintenance dosing, thus
making Cosequin more economical to use the longer an animal is on the product.
Perhaps the most
important consideration when evaluating products such as Cosequin is the
willingness of the manufacturer to subject the product to stringent clinical
studies and evaluation by major universities and board certified veterinary
specialists. We know of no other manufacturer who submits its nutritional
products to such stringent study and evaluation.
Where can I purchase
capsules are available only from licensed veterinarians. Your veterinarian
is best qualified to determine whether your pet is a candidate for Cosequin.
Also it is important to have a veterinarian monitor the progress of your
pet while using the product.
Veterinary Sciences Division